The topics we choose for this session are both closely related to the current heated politics issues, and are controversial to some extent. By focusing on the three topics, we hope we could derive your attention to these topics and see the full extension of them, so that you would have a better understanding of the society and develop holistic perspectives towards them.
Note: You should prepare for the competition on all the three topics as well as both sides of each topic, since you will be randomly assigned to any topic for your speech. The same goes for your debate preparation. Bear in mind while doing the research that you have to gain as much information of the topics as possible, and with as diverse aspects of the topics as possible.
2018 年，中国新生儿数量减少了 200 万至 1520 万，这是自 2015年废除备受争议的一胎政策以来，新生儿数量连续第二年下降。 同年，中国的人口增长率为 0.38%，与西欧国家相当。
The number of newborns in China decreased by 2 to 15.2 millions in 2018. It is the second consecutive year of decline in the number of newborns since the abolition of the controversial one child policy in 2015.In the same year,the growth rate of China’s population was 0.38%, which is equivalent to that of Western European countries.
尽管中国人口仍在持续增长，但据预测，中国人口将在 2029 年达到约 14.4 亿的峰值后下降。一些人认为这预示着中国将陷入经济困境，因为不断减少的劳动年龄人口限制了商品和服务的产出。加州大学欧文分校(University of California Irvine)的人口统计学家王丰表示:“年轻人数量的下降及其子女数量的减少，应该会对中国经济产生深远的影响。 ”
Although China's population keeps growing, it is predicted that the Chinese population will peak in 2019 at 1.44 billion before falling into decline. Some believe that this indicates that China will be in economic difficulties because the decreasing working-age population limits the output of goods and services. “ A decline in the population of young people and their smaller number of children ought to have profound repercussions for the Chinese economy,” said Wang Feng, a demographer at the University of California Irvine.
除了人口总数下降，人口老龄化也会加剧中国劳动力大军的萎缩。中国人民大学的研究人员估计，到 2050 年，中国 60 岁以上人口将达到 4.79 亿，约占人口总数的三分之一，而目前这一比例为 16%左右。
In addition to the decline in the total population, the aging of the population will also aggravate the shrinking of the Chinese workforce. Researchers at Renmin University of China estimate that by 2050, China's population over the age of 60 will reach 479 million, accounting for about one-third of the total population, and currently the ratio is about 16%.
因此， 有专家呼吁，中国应该尽快废除计划生育政策， 实行鼓励人口生育的政策。但另一外面，中国人口出生率的下降主要原因之一是养育成本过高， 单纯废除计划生育政策并不能缓解人口收缩的压力，反倒让贫困人口和富裕阶层的出生率大大上升，最终会加剧贫富差距。
Therefore, some experts call for immediate abolition of the family planning policy and The implementation of birth-encouraging policies. However, one of the dominant reasons of demographic decline is the super-high cost of raising children, which means abolition of family planning policy alone can’t ease the pressure of population shrinking. It can only lead to a spurt of the birth rate among the poor and the rich, resulting to the widening gap between the rich and the poor.
The family planning policy should/should not be abolished.
Pros: The family planning policy should be abolished.
Cons: The family planning policy should not be abolished.
随着全球化的快速发展， 跨国人才流动变得越来越频繁，许多国家大规模的引进外籍人才促进本国的发展,在这些国家中，外籍人才在其总人口中占了相当大的比重。 然而，中国的外籍人才比例明显偏低。按照联合国和有关人口普查的统计，中国国际人口比例大概仅有0.04%。而全球平均比例是3%，发达国家在10%以上，发展中国家也达到了1.6%。作为与中国同为人口大国的印度，其国际化人才比例也达到了0.6%。
With the rapid development of globalization, the flow of transnational talents has become more and more frequent, and many countries have introduced foreign talents on a large scale to promote their own development. In these countries, foreign talent accounts for a considerable proportion of their total population. However, the proportion of foreign talents in China is obviously low. According to the United Nations and the relevant census statistics, China's international population proportion is only about 0.04%, with the global average 3%, developed countries more than 10%, and developing countries 1.6%. Even the proportion of foreign talents in India, a populous country like China is 0.6%.
因此，有专家呼吁，中国应该实施相关政策，大力引进外籍人才，提升中国外籍人才比例。但是， 一方面， 中国本身的人才数量庞大，每一年,高达数百万人应届毕业生进入人才市场， 就业压力巨大。另一方， 中国劳动生产率相当低下，只相当于世界平均水平的 40%，这意味着提升中国劳动生产率似乎更加重要而紧迫； 再者，外籍人才由于语言、文化等障碍难以融入中国社会并在自己的岗位上充分发挥其潜力。 因此， 我们似乎应该更加专注于提升本国人才的劳动效率和综合素质， 提升本国人才就业率而非大规模引进外籍人才。
Therefore, some experts call for implementation of policy to vigorously introduce foreign talents and increase the proportion of Chinese foreign talents. On the one hand, however, China has a huge number of talents, with millions of graduates pouring into the talent market, resulting immense employment pressure; on the other hand, China’s labor productivity is quite low, only equivalent to 40% of the world average, which means improving labor productivity in China seems to be more important and urgent. Furthermore, it is difficult for foreign talents to integrate into Chinese society and fully reach their potential due to language and cultural barriers. So it appears China should concentrate more on improving the labor efficiency and comprehensive quality of our
own talents and their employment rate, instead of introducing foreign talents on a large scare.
China should introduce foreign talents on a large scare/China should concentrate more on improving the labor efficiency and comprehensive quality of our own talents and their employment rate.
Pros: China should introduce foreign talents on a large scare
Cons: China should concentrate more on improving the labor efficiency and comprehensive quality of our own talents and their employment rate.
2017 年 1 月 10 日，北京教育考试院首次将《红楼梦》、《平凡的世界》等六部名著纳入高考必考范围。原本不少人以为，这又是一道背诵作者、年代就能过关的“送分题”。然而该年的高考语文考试要求考生从名著中“选择一个既可悲又可叹的人物，简述人物形象”。如果没有真正读完原著，学生答题几乎无从入手。
On January 10th 2017, Beijing Education Examination listed Six masterpieces such as Dream of Red Mansions and Ordinary World as compulsory content in the College Entrance Examination for the first time. A lot of people had thought that it would be very easy to gain the marks by remembering the authors and some years of publication. However, the exam papers asked students describe the characters of a figure who is
lamentable chosen from one of the six masterpieces. It is impossible to finish the task without reading these books thoroughly.
由教育部统一组织新编的语文教材在 2012 年启动编写，于 2017年 9 月试点，并将在 2019 年覆盖全国义务教育所有年级。届时，小学、初中阶段语文教材将收编 124 篇古诗文；高中语文则将推荐背诵的古诗文从 14 篇增加至 72 篇，增幅多达五倍。
The newly compiled Chinese textbooks organized by the Ministry of Education were launched in 2012, piloted in September 2017, and will be introduced to Chinese classes of all grades of national compulsory education in 2019. Once introduced, Chinese textbooks for primary and middle school students will include 124 ancient poetries. The number of recommending reciting ancient poetries will be increased from 14 to 72,
with five times growth.
这一轮语文教材改革对中国古代文化的强调和重视充分体现了新时期对于中国的文化自信和实现民族复兴的要求。 但是， 语文教材的改革要求学生将更多的时间和精力投入到语文的学习上， 因而必将对其他科目的学习造成一定的冲击， 尤其是英语科目。
The emphasis on Chinese ancient literature in the Chinese textbooks reform fully reflects the significance of China's cultural self-confidence and national rejuvenation in the new era. However, the Chinese textbooks reform means more time and energy should be devoted to Chinese learning, shortening time of other subjects especially English learning.
自改革开放以来，中国人对于英语学习就产生了浓厚的兴趣，尤其是中国加入世贸组织和北京申奥成功之后，中国人对英语学习的热情空前高涨， 热度似乎不曾衰减。 而随着中国不断融入世界并引领全球化的发展，中国对于熟练使用英语并且深入了解各国国情的人才的要求也不断增长。
Since the reform and opening up, the Chinese have developed a strong interest in English learning. After the China's accession to the WTO and Beijing’s successful Olympic bid, Chinese people’s enthusiasm for learning English is unprecedentedly high, and the heat seems to have not decayed. As China keeps integrating into the world and leads the development of globalization, the demand for talents who are proficient in
using English and have a deep understanding other nations is growing continuously.
当是我们也应当看到， 我们对于英语的学习似乎有些过度了，许多父母都想方设法地让孩子从幼儿园学就开始学英语， 并且几乎不计时间和金钱成本。在还没有完全掌握母语的情况下过早的英语学习可能会给孩子的语言学习尤其是母语学习造成一定的障碍。 对于英语的过度学习减少了学习其他科目和发展其他爱好的时间， 不利于孩子的全面健康成长。
However, we should also notice that we appear to learn English excessively. Lots of parents spare no efforts on trying to push their children to learn English from kindergarten, without caring about time and money spent on it. Learning English without fully mastering the mother tongue may cause certain obstacles to children's language learning, especially mother tongue learning. Over-learning in English also reduces the time to learn other subjects and develop other hobbies, which is not conducive to the overall healthy growth of children.
Learning English is more important than learning Chinese for Chinese students/Learning Chinese is more important than learning English for Chinese students.
Pros: Learning Chinese is more important than learning English for
Cons: Learning English is more important than learning Chinese for
Please state your stance clearly and try to argue with substantive evidence.